Early detection of emerging foreign animal diseases is critical to pathogen surveillance and control programs. Rift valley fever virus (RVFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and African swine fever virus (ASFV) represent three taxonomically and ecologically diverse vector-borne viruses with the potential to be introduced to the United States. To promote preparedness for such an event, we reviewed the current surveillance strategies and diagnostic tools in practice around the world for these emerging viruses, and summarized key points pertaining to the availability of existing guidelines and strategic approaches for early detection, surveillance, and disease management activities. We compare and contrast the surveillance and management approaches of these three diverse agents of disease as case studies to emphasize the importance of the ecological context and biology of vectors and vertebrate hosts. The information presented in this review will inform stakeholders of the current state of surveillance approaches against these transboundary foreign animal disease which threaten the United States.
Kading, R.C., Abworo, E.O. and Hamer, G.L. 2019. Rift Valley fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and African swine fever virus: Three transboundary, vector-borne, veterinary biothreats with diverse surveillance and response capacity needs. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 6: 458.